#BetterCarer_Talk_11 took place on 30 April 2020 via online live streaming. The title of the talk was The Genetics of ASD. This session was presented by a guest speaker - Ms Delphine Low. The session brings caregivers a little closer to understanding how genetics affect the expression of ASD and the associated physiological conditions. It covered knowledge related to genes and ASD and how the associated conditions could be better managed. Some basic genetics terminology were introduced. Topics on male bias in ASD, as well as the association of Fragile X syndrome with ASD were discussed. This was followed by a sharing on family and population statistics on the risk occurrence of ASD based on mutation, hereditary and environmental factors. Finally, the session covered the applications of genetics in diagnostic strategies, and the potential of developing personalized, targeted treatment options for individuals with ASD, along with genetic counselling. The ethical issues surrounding genetic testings were also discussed.
#BetterCarer_Talk_10 took place on 28 March 2020 via online live streaming. The title of the talk was ASD-ADHD Comorbidity – A Paradox?. This session was presented by a guest speaker - Ms Delphine Low. The session brings carers through the traits and symptoms of ASD and ADHD, how they are different and similar. The co-occurrence of ASD and ADHD can result in masking of behavioural expression, hence leading to misdiagnosis of the condition. The brain development of persons with ASD and/or ADHD at birth are different from neurotypicals. The physical, behavioural and emotional development of a child with ASD and/or ADHD were also discussed. Following this, various modes of interventions were covered, including a discussions on the (in)effectiveness of elimination diets and digital medicine, i.e. the use of closed loop video games to harness the potential of brain plasticity as a form of targeted neural stimulation.
#BetterCarer_Talk_9 took place on 27 Dec 2019. The title of the talk was Language in Autism. We started by looking at how language is uniquely human through the research experiment of Project Nim. We learnt to appreciate the pathways of the brain that are responsible for our receptive language and expressive language abilities. We get to know the evidence that demonstrate the functional and anatomical differences between an ASD child and a neuro-typical child in relation to speech development. We referenced some examples of how we could bridge the gaps in helping children with autism to better express their world and how interventions such as Early Start Denver Model and sign language might better improve their communication abilities.
#BetterCarer_Talk_8 took place on 28 Nov 2019. The title of the talk was Zzz…It’s A Sleepy Matter – Sleeping with Autism. This session was presented by a guest speaker - Ms Delphine Low.
The session started off by introducing neurotransmitters and the roles they play in the brain in sleep regulation of the circadian rhythm. The correlation between the circadian rhythm and the homeostatic sleep cycle, including the NREM and REM sleep stages, were explained. Next, the possible multifactorial causes of the high prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with autism were covered. This included an explanation on the various types of sleep disorders, manifestations, clinical study methods, and possible measures or interventions used to improve the conditions. The impact of sleep disturbances on a child’s behaviour and on the caregiver were also touched on. The session moved on to discuss sleep management through the use of behavioural techniques based on learning theory to improve behaviours. Lifestyle factors such as nutrition, physical exercise and sleep hygiene also play a part in alleviating sleep problems. The talk concluded with a small segment on alternative options in sleep management though the use of pharmacotherapy, vitamins, minerals, and traditional botanicals.
#BetterCarer_Talk_7 took place on 31 Oct 2019. The title of the talk was Brain Gut Connection - What it says about using supplements to treat Autism?. We started by looking at the roles of the neuro-transmitters and the excitatory and inhibitory functions they play in passing on the neuro-electrical signals between the synapses. We relate this back to the food intake that contains compounds such as the Amino Acids which are the essential components of the neuro-transmitters. Through that, we looked at the dietary intake and supplements and how the lack of strong evidence imply that we should not rely too much on supplements to help manage autism. Subsequently, we looked at the importance of good microbes in helping us to achieve better cognitive abilities. Lastly we touched on the autonomic nervous system and emphasise the importance of the vagus nerves in the parasympathetic nervous system and the advance results of vagus nerves stimulation to potentially help manage autism.
#BetterCarer_Talk_6 took place on 26 Sept 2019. The title of the talk was Essential Oils for Autism - Myth or Truth? We first looked at how the receptors in olfactory received the molecules and translate the information to the various parts of the brain bypassing the blood brain barrier. We gained an understanding of how critically important it is for us to know what we put across different types of smell to our loved ones, especially as a form of therapy. We surveyed the essential oils usage patterns of the audience in regards to their beliefs and practices. We then covered the basics of how to verify the robustness of an intervention claim via the PASTA approach. We concluded the session by looking at some of the exciting discoveries and interventions that might eventually really really really help solve the challenges faced by the autism communities. (READ: Essential Oils = Weak Evidence)
#BetterCarer_Talk_5 took place on 23 Aug 2019. The title of the talk was Theory of Mind Explained!. We started by explaining the key elements in theory of mind (ToM), namely the desire, intention, and beliefs of others. We looked at the evolution of ToM from chimpanzee to how individual brain develops the ToM abilities today. We conclude with a critical view of how we could combine context based ToM learning and exercises that promote cerebellar activities to arrive at a more effective intervention to possibly enhance social cognition.
#BetterCarer_Talk_4 took place on 20 July 2019. The title of the talk was Neurodiversity - What it means to be different. We started the session with a look at a neurological condition called Synesthesia and use it as a case in point to illustrate the cross-talks/cross-wiring of the brains that would result in abilities of individuals being different from the normal population. Expanding on that topic we looked at social interaction challenges of ASD and how being aware of context blindness should help in bringing the diverse groups of people closer together. We also briefly touched on the ethics and criminal justice questions that are related to neurodiversity.
#BetterCarer_Talk_3 took place on 26 June 2019. The title of the talk was Demystifying Neurofeedback. During the session, we looked at how the activities of a single neuron cell was captured and demonstrated to be ground breaking in our understanding of our human visual system. We extrapolated that and explored the complexity of the entire brain network and how challenging it is to monitor and even develop stimuli for proper intervention through neurofeedback. We briefly looked at the work done elsewhere and discussed on other brain related questions. In conclusion, to apply neurofeedback in solving ASD or any mental disorder/disabilities remain a highly challenging task. (READ: Neurofeedback = Weak Evidence)
#BetterCarer_Talk_2 took place on 30 March 2019. The title of the talk was Understanding kids' behavior - What does the brain science tell us. The session covered the basics of brain sciences that were related to our behaviors. Audience learnt about our brains' limitations and potentials as applied in altering behaviors under different circumstances including shaping children with autism spectrum disorders towards a desired goal.
#BetterCarer_Talk_1 took place on 23 Feb 2019. The title of the talk was Human Brain Development. The session introduced human brain development of a child from birth until the brain is fully developed. It touched on some relevant facts of developmental disorder including Austism Spectrum Disorders.
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